Bias in algorithms of AI systems developed for COVID-19: A scoping review

To analyze which ethically relevant biases have been identified by academic literature in artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms developed either for patient risk prediction and triage, or for contact tracing to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, to specifically investigate whether the role of social determinants of health (SDOH) have been considered in these AI developments…

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Circulating Isovalerylcarnitine and Lung Cancer Risk: Evidence from Mendelian Randomization and Pre-Diagnostic Blood Measurements

Background: Tobacco exposure causes 8 of 10 lung cancers, and identifying additional risk factors is challenging due to confounding introduced by smoking in traditional observational studies. Materials and Methods: We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to screen 207 metabolites for their role in lung cancer predisposition using independent genome-wide-association studies (GWAS) of blood metabolite levels (n…

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Brecha de género persistente en la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria en España durante el periodo 2013-2018

Objetivos. Examinar las diferencias de género en las características de la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria (PCRE), los tratamientos, la supervivencia, y los cambios evolutivos en España. Método. Datos de dos series temporales (2013/2014 y 2017/2018) del registro prospectivo de PCRE (OHSCAR). Se incluyeron todos los casos consecutivos en los que intervino un equipo de emergencias. Las…

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Diet-wide association study of 92 foods and nutrients and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study

It is unclear whether diet, and in particular certain foods or nutrients, are associated with lung cancer risk. We assessed associations of 92 dietary factors with lung cancer risk in 327,790 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per…

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Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Endometrial Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. Methods: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case–control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into…

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Sustained Negative Mental Health Outcomes Among Healthcare Workers Over the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Cohort Study

Objective: To characterize the evolution of healthcare workers’ mental health status over the 1-year period following the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and to examine baseline characteristics associated with resolution or persistence of mental health problems over time. Methods: We conducted an 8-month follow-up cohort study. Eligible participants were healthcare workers working in Spain. Baseline data…

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¿Permiso para investigar? Reflexiones sobre los requisitos éticos de la observación participante en el contexto de la entrevista familiar de obtención de órganos

Aunque se han identificado muchos de los factores que pueden influir en la donación, el momento de la entrevista en la que se les solicita a las familias su autorización para la extracción de órganos parece ser decisivo. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios que analizan este proceso cuando dicha entrevista tiene lugar. Técnicas cualitativas…

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Frequency, Types, and Manifestations of Partner Sexual Violence, Non-Partner Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment: A Population Study in Spain

Background: This study analyzes the frequency and sociodemographic characteristics associated with sexual violence by a partner/ex-partner (PSV), someone other than a partner or ex-partner (NPSV), or sexual harassment (SH). Methods: The study is based on the 2019 Macro-survey of Violence against Women conducted by the Spanish Ministry of Equality among a sample of 9568 women…

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