Large-scale longitudinal data on the association of domain-specific physical activity (PA) and mortality is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association of work, household (HPA), and leisure time PA (LTPA) with overall and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC-Spain study.
38,379 participants (62.4% women), 30–65 years old, and free of chronic disease at baseline were followed-up from recruitment (1992 – 1996) to December 31st, 2008 to ascertain vital status and cause of death. PA was evaluated at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up with a validated questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ) and combined variables were used to classify the participants by sub-domains of PA. Associations with overall, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality risks were assessed using competing risk Cox regression models adjusted by potential confounders.
After 13.6 years of mean follow-up, 1371 deaths were available for analyses. HPA was strongly associated to reduced overall (hazard ratio (HR) for Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.47 (0.34, 0.64)) and cause-specific mortalities in women and to lower cancer mortality in men (P for trend = 0.004), irrespective of age, education, and lifestyle and morbidity variables. LTPA was associated with lower mortality in women (HR for Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.71 (0.52, 0.98)), but not men. No relationships were found between sedentariness at work and overall mortality.
HPA was associated to lower mortality risk in men and women from the EPIC-Spain cohort, whereas LTPA also contributed to reduce risk of death in women. Considering the large proportion of total daily PA that HPA represents in some population groups, these results are of public health importance.
- EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition;
- EPIC-PAQ, EPIC physical activity questionnaire;
- HPA, Household physical activity;
- LTPA, Leisure time physical activity;
- PA, Physical activity;
- RPA, Recreational physical activity