Prolactin Determinants in Healthy Women: A Large Cross-Sectional Study within the EPIC Cohort

Background: Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that higher circulating prolactin is associated with breast cancer risk; however, how various risk factors for breast cancer influence prolactin levels in healthy women is not clear. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional associations between several suggested reproductive and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer and circulating prolactin among pre- and…

Projecting Pharmaceutical Expenditure in EU5 to 2021: Adjusting for the Impact of Discounts and Rebates

Background Within (European) healthcare systems, the predominant goal for pharmaceutical expenditure is cost containment. This is due to a general belief among healthcare policy makers that pharmaceutical expenditure—driven by high prices—will be unsustainable unless further reforms are enacted. Objective The aim of this paper is to provide more realistic expectations of pharmaceutical expenditure for all…

Prognoses and improvement for head and neck cancers diagnosed in Europe in early 2000s: The EUROCARE-5 population-based study

Background Head and neck (H&N) cancers are a heterogeneous group of malignancies, affecting various sites, with different prognoses. The aims of this study are to analyse survival for patients with H&N cancers in relation to tumour location, to assess the change in survival between European countries, and to investigate whether survival improved over time. Methods…

Prisons and custodial settings are part of a comprehensive response to COVID-19

Prisons are epicentres for infectious diseases because of the higher background prevalence of infection, the higher levels of risk factors for infection, the unavoidable close contact in often overcrowded, poorly ventilated, and unsanitary facilities, and the poor access to health-care services relative to that in community settings. 1 Infections can be transmitted between prisoners, staff…

Priorización de actividades clínicas no recomendadas en Atención Primaria

Fundamento. Priorización de las recomendaciones “no hacer” procedentes de la lista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (Semfyc) de actividades preventivas, diagnósticas, terapéuticas o de cuidados que no es correcto hacer en Atención Primaria (AP), a través de un consenso de profesionales expertos de medicina, farmacia y enfermería. Método. Mediante un…