Modelos predictivos de la epidemia de COVID-19 en España con curvas de Gompertz

Durante la crisis de salud internacional provocada por la pandemia de COVID-19, además de conocer los datos sobre contagios, muertes y ocupación de camas hospitalarias también es necesario hacer predicciones que ayuden a la gestión de la crisis por parte de las autoridades sanitarias. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la metodología utilizada para…

Modeling the costs and long-term health benefits of screening the general population for risks of cardiovascular disease: a review of methods used in the literature

Background Strategies for screening and intervening to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in primary care settings need to be assessed in terms of both their costs and long-term health effects. We undertook a literature review to investigate the methodologies used. Methods In a framework of developing a new health-economic model for evaluating different…

Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation, leukocyte telomere length, and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Background Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) copy number and deletions have been proposed as risk markers for various cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Methods To gain a more comprehensive picture on how these markers can modulate BC risk, alone or in conjunction, we performed simultaneous measurements of LTL and mtDNA copy…

Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation and pancreatic cancer risk in the prospective EPIC cohort

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood has been found to be associated with risk of developing several cancers. However, data on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are very limited. METHODS: To further our knowledge on this topic we measured relative mtDNA copy number by a quantitative real-time PCR assay in peripheral leukocyte samples…

Milk intake and incident stroke and coronary heart disease in populations of European descent: A Mendelian Randomization study

Higher milk intake has been associated with a lower stroke risk, but not with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Residual confounding or reverse causation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we estimated the causal association of milk consumption with stroke and CHD risk through instrumental variable (IV) and gene-outcome analyses. IV analysis included 29,328 participants (4,611…

Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease: Observational and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

Background: End-stage renal disease is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown, however, whether mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods: Observational analyses were conducted using individual-level data from 4 population data sources (Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD [European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and…

Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease: Observational and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

Background: End-stage renal disease is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown, however, whether mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods: Observational analyses were conducted using individual-level data from 4 population data sources (Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD [European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and…

Microcephaly Epidemic in Brazil: An Earlier Chapter

Objective: Identify risk factors for microcephaly and evaluate historical trends of microcephaly and arboviruses to recognize patterns and anomalies that indicate the beginning of the microcephaly epidemic associated with Zika infection. Methods: The head circumferences of 62,298 newborns was analyzed to identify cases of microcephaly between 2014 and 2017. We compared the groups of newborns…

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism and Infant’s Anthropometry at Birth

Identification of causal factors that influence fetal growth and anthropometry at birth is of great importance as they provide information about increased risk of disease throughout life. The association between maternal genetic polymorphism MTHFR(677)C>T and anthropometry at birth has been widely studied because of its key role in the one-carbon cycle. MTHFR(677) CT and TT…

Methodological issues in a prospective study on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk within the EPIC cohort

Background The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases. Objectives First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study –nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition…