Using longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation in complex settings with dynamic interventions

Longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation (LTMLE) has very rarely been used to estimate dynamic treatment effects in the context of time‐dependent confounding affected by prior treatment when faced with long follow‐up times, multiple time‐varying confounders, and complex associational relationships simultaneously. Reasons for this include the potential computational burden, technical challenges, restricted modeling options for long…

Use of heuristics during the clinical decision process from family care physicians in real conditions

Rationale aims and objectives The available evidence on the use of heuristics and their relationship with diagnostic error in primary care is very limited. The aim of the study is to identify the use of unknown thought and specifically the possible use of Representativeness, Availability and overconfidence heuristics in the clinical practice of primary care…

Urinary levels of organophosphate pesticides and predictors of exposure in pre-school and school children living in agricultural and urban communities from south Spain

Background. Despite the widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides, information on predictors of children’s exposure to such pesticides is scarce. Objective. To assess exposure to OP pesticides in children 3-11 year-old living in agricultural communities and urban areas from Andalusia (Southern Spain), and to identify the main determinants of exposure. Methods. A longitudinal study was…

Unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Background/Objectives: High intakes of unprocessed red or processed meat may increase the risk of stroke. We aimed to examine the association between unprocessed red meat, processed meat and total red meat consumption and risk of total stroke and ischaemic stroke. Subjects/Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted based on the data for 41 020 men…

Unlocking the potential of established products: toward new incentives rewarding innovation in Europe

Background: Many established products (EPs – marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit–risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D…

Tumor-associated auto-antibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer? A prospective evaluation

Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated auto-antibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53,…

Trends in survival of multiple myeloma: a thirty-year population-based study in a single institution

Background: Despite the progress made in recent years, multiple myeloma is still considered an incurable disease. Most survival data come from clinical trials. Little is known about the outcome in unselected real-life patients. Methods:Overall survival was analyzed in a cohort of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, over the last three decades, in a single…

Trends in net survival from head and neck cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study

The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the trends in 1- and 5-year net survival and the trends in the dynamics of the excess mortality rates in head and neck cancers between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First,…