Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease: Observational and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

Background: End-stage renal disease is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown, however, whether mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods: Observational analyses were conducted using individual-level data from 4 population data sources (Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD [European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and…

Milk intake and incident stroke and coronary heart disease in populations of European descent: A Mendelian Randomization study

Higher milk intake has been associated with a lower stroke risk, but not with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Residual confounding or reverse causation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we estimated the causal association of milk consumption with stroke and CHD risk through instrumental variable (IV) and gene-outcome analyses. IV analysis included 29,328 participants (4,611…

Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation and pancreatic cancer risk in the prospective EPIC cohort

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood has been found to be associated with risk of developing several cancers. However, data on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are very limited. METHODS: To further our knowledge on this topic we measured relative mtDNA copy number by a quantitative real-time PCR assay in peripheral leukocyte samples…

Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation, leukocyte telomere length, and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Background Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) copy number and deletions have been proposed as risk markers for various cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Methods To gain a more comprehensive picture on how these markers can modulate BC risk, alone or in conjunction, we performed simultaneous measurements of LTL and mtDNA copy…

Modeling the costs and long-term health benefits of screening the general population for risks of cardiovascular disease: a review of methods used in the literature

Background Strategies for screening and intervening to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in primary care settings need to be assessed in terms of both their costs and long-term health effects. We undertook a literature review to investigate the methodologies used. Methods In a framework of developing a new health-economic model for evaluating different…

Modelos predictivos de la epidemia de COVID-19 en España con curvas de Gompertz

Durante la crisis de salud internacional provocada por la pandemia de COVID-19, además de conocer los datos sobre contagios, muertes y ocupación de camas hospitalarias también es necesario hacer predicciones que ayuden a la gestión de la crisis por parte de las autoridades sanitarias. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la metodología utilizada para…

Moderate egg consumption and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in the Spanish European Prospective into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) study

Purpose Dietary guidelines for egg consumption for general population differ among public health agencies. Our aim was to investigate the association between egg intake and both all-cause and specific-cause of mortality in a Mediterranean population. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort included 40,621 men and women aged 29–69 years old in…

Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe: results from the EPIC cohort study

Background Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk of premature death. Methods We analysed data from 264,906 European adults…

Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between Ownership Structure and Technical Efficiency Frontier in the Spanish National Health System Hospitals

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the ownership structure of hospitals and the possibility of their being positioned on the frontier of technical efficiency in the economic crisis period 2010–2012, adjusting for hospital variables and regional characteristics in the areas where the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) hospitals are located. Methods: 230 National Health System hospitals were…

Multilevel Zero-One Inflated Beta Regression Model for the Analysis of the Relationship between Exogenous Health Variables and Technical Efficiency in the Spanish National Health System Hospitals

Background: This article proposes a methodological innovation in health economics for the second stage analysis of technical efficiency in hospitals. It investigates the relationship between the installed capacity in regions and hospitals and their ownership structure. Methods: A multilevel zero-one inflated beta regression model is employed to model pure technical efficiency more adequately than other…