Circulating Sex Hormone Levels and Colon Cancer Risk in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study and Meta-analysis

Background: Endogenous sex hormones may contribute to higher colorectal cancer incidence rates in men compared to women, but despite an increased number of studies, clear evidence is lacking. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive nested case-control study of circulating concentrations of sex hormones, sex hormone precursors and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to subsequent…

Circulating plasma phospholipid fatty acids and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European cohort

There are both limited and conflicting data on the role of dietary fat and specific fatty acids in the development of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The fatty acid composition was…

Circulating Osteopontin and Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in a Large European Population

We previously identified osteopontin (OPN) as a promising marker for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating OPN levels and HCC incidence in a large population-based cohort. A nested case–control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During…

Circulating Isovalerylcarnitine and Lung Cancer Risk: Evidence from Mendelian Randomization and Pre-Diagnostic Blood Measurements

Background: Tobacco exposure causes 8 of 10 lung cancers, and identifying additional risk factors is challenging due to confounding introduced by smoking in traditional observational studies. Materials and Methods: We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to screen 207 metabolites for their role in lung cancer predisposition using independent genome-wide-association studies (GWAS) of blood metabolite levels (n…

Circulating insulin‐like growth factor I in relation to melanoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF‐I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF‐I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF‐I…

Circulating inflammatory biomarkers, adipokines and breast cancer risk—a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort

Background Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and might differently impact breast cancer risk among pre and postmenopausal women. We performed a nested case-control study to examine whether pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, c-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and 6 interleukins were…

Circulating copper and zinc levels and risk of hepatobiliary cancers in Europeans

Background: Copper and zinc are essential micronutrients and cofactors of many enzymatic reactions that may be involved in liver-cancer development. We aimed to assess pre-diagnostic circulating levels of copper, zinc and their ratio (Cu/Zn) in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) and gall bladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cancers. Methods: A nested…

Circulating concentrations of vitamin D in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in European populations

Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer. However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and pancreatic cancer incidence in European populations. We conducted a pooled nested…

Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses

Background Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based…