A review of exposure assessment methods for epidemiological studies of health effects related to industrially contaminated sites

BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Health risks related to living close to industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) are a public concern. Toxicology-based risk assessment of single contaminants is the main approach to assess health risks, but epidemiological studies which investigate the relationships between exposure and health directly in the affected…

A regional multicomponent intervention for mechanical restraint reduction in acute psychiatric wards

4.1 Introduction Mechanical restraint (MR) is used in many countries, including Spain, where non‐harmonized policies between autonomous communities exist. There is a lack of research about interventions at regional levels to reduce their use. 4.2 Aim To analyse data on key outcomes during the implementation of a multicomponent intervention in Andalusia (Spain) to reduce the…

A Prospective Evaluation of Plasma Polyphenol Levels and Colon Cancer Risk

Polyphenols have been shown to exert biological activity in experimental models of colon cancer; however, human data linking specific polyphenols to colon cancer is limited. We assessed the relationship between pre‐diagnostic plasma polyphenols and colon cancer risk in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Using high pressure…

A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study

Background Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. Materials and methods We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty…

A prospective diet-wide association study for risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC

BACKGROUND & AIMS Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS The association of…

A Procedure for Deriving Formulas to Convert Transition Rates to Probabilities for Multi-State Markov Models

For health-economic analyses that use multi-state Markov models, it is often necessary to convert from transition rates to transition probabilities, and for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other purposes it is useful to have explicit algebraic formulas for these conversions, to avoid having to resort to numerical methods. However, if there are four or more states…

A nutrient-wide association study for risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Netherlands Cohort Study

Purpose The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive. Methods A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional…

A New Pipeline for the Normalization and Pooling of Metabolomics Data

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according…

A Nested Case–Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Background Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body…

A multilayered post-GWAS assessment on genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer

Background Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease in which both non-genetic and genetic factors interplay. To date, 40 GWAS hits have been associated with PC risk in individuals of European descent, explaining 4.1% of the phenotypic variance. Methods We complemented a new conventional PC GWAS (1D) with genome spatial autocorrelation analysis (2D) permitting to…