Duration of the patient interval in breast cancer and factors associated with longer delays in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review with meta-analysis

Objective Breast cancer survival is lower in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) partially due to many women being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The patient interval refers to the time elapsed between the detection of symptoms and the first consultation with a healthcare provider and is considered one of the core indicators for early diagnosis and…

Absolute Risk of Oropharyngeal Cancer After an HPV16-E6 Serology Test and Potential Implications for Screening: Results From the Human Papillomavirus Cancer Cohort Consortium

PURPOSE Seropositivity for the HPV16-E6 oncoprotein is a promising marker for early detection of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), but the absolute risk of OPC after a positive or negative test is unknown. METHODS We constructed an OPC risk prediction model that integrates (1) relative odds of OPC for HPV16-E6 serostatus and cigarette smoking from the human…

Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease: Observational and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

Background: End-stage renal disease is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown, however, whether mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods: Observational analyses were conducted using individual-level data from 4 population data sources (Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD [European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and…

Follow-up care of 12 months of patients with bladder cancer in Spain: A multicenter prospective cohort study

The therapeutic approach of bladder cancer strongly determines its prognosis. We describe the treatments and outcomes for a Spanish cohort of patients with bladder cancer for the first 12 months after diagnosis and identify the factors that influenced the decision to undergo the treatment received. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, cohort study including primary bladder…

Food Processing and Risk of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study

Background & Aims Industrial foods have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions. We investigated the relationship between the degree of food processing and risks of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Methods Analyses included 413,590 participants (68.6% women; mean baseline age,…

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Bone Turnover Markers in Adults With Metabolic Syndrome: The Mediator Role of Inflammation

The relationship between inflammatory markers and bone turnover in adults is well known, and a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and inflammatory markers has also been described. Hence, we tested whether the association between CRF and bone turnover markers is mediated by inflammatory markers in adults with metabolic syndrome. A total of 81 adults…

The patient, diagnostic, and treatment intervals in adult patients with cancer from high- and lower-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Longer time intervals to diagnosis and treatment are associated with worse survival for various types of cancer. The patient, diagnostic, and treatment intervals are considered core indicators for early diagnosis and treatment. This review estimated the median duration of these intervals for various types of cancer and compared it across high- and lower-income countries.…

La historia se repite: una ética para dos pandemias

La irrupción del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en la década de los 80 trajo consigo conflictos éticos que supusieron un desafío para la Bioética. Surgieron, entre otros, problemas de confidencialidad, estigmatización, justicia, deber de asistencia y de investigación. Si hasta entonces la reflexión bioética había estado centrada en los conflictos protagonizados por el…

Bias in algorithms of AI systems developed for COVID-19: A scoping review

To analyze which ethically relevant biases have been identified by academic literature in artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms developed either for patient risk prediction and triage, or for contact tracing to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, to specifically investigate whether the role of social determinants of health (SDOH) have been considered in these AI developments…

Development of the European Healthcare and Social Cost Database (EU HCSCD) for use in economic evaluation of healthcare programs

Introduction Costs are one of the critical factors for the transferability of the results in health technology assessment and economic evaluation. The objective is to develop a cost database at the European level to facilitate cross-border cost comparisons in different settings and explains the factors that lead to differences in healthcare costs in different countries,…