Bias in algorithms of AI systems developed for COVID-19: A scoping review

To analyze which ethically relevant biases have been identified by academic literature in artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms developed either for patient risk prediction and triage, or for contact tracing to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, to specifically investigate whether the role of social determinants of health (SDOH) have been considered in these AI developments…

Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Endometrial Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. Methods: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case–control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into…

¿Permiso para investigar? Reflexiones sobre los requisitos éticos de la observación participante en el contexto de la entrevista familiar de obtención de órganos

Aunque se han identificado muchos de los factores que pueden influir en la donación, el momento de la entrevista en la que se les solicita a las familias su autorización para la extracción de órganos parece ser decisivo. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios que analizan este proceso cuando dicha entrevista tiene lugar. Técnicas cualitativas…

Frequency, Types, and Manifestations of Partner Sexual Violence, Non-Partner Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment: A Population Study in Spain

Background: This study analyzes the frequency and sociodemographic characteristics associated with sexual violence by a partner/ex-partner (PSV), someone other than a partner or ex-partner (NPSV), or sexual harassment (SH). Methods: The study is based on the 2019 Macro-survey of Violence against Women conducted by the Spanish Ministry of Equality among a sample of 9568 women…

Cyberbullying and Associated Factors in Member Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies with Representative Population Samples

The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the current state of empirical research and establish an up-to-date estimate of the prevalence of cyberbullying through the gathering of self-reported experiences from representative population samples from EU countries. Bibliographic searches were conducted on main electronic databases for studies until…

Leptin levels were negatively associated with lumbar spine bone mineral content in children with overweight or obesity

Aim Adipokines seem to play a role in bone morphogenesis, although this also depends on the mechanical forces applied to the skeleton. The aim was to assess the relationships of resting leptin and adiponectin with bone parameters and whether high muscular fitness levels affect these relationships in children with overweight or obesity. Methods This cross-sectional…

Cancer Survival in Adults in Spain: A Population-Based Study of the Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN)

The assessment of cancer survival at the population level is essential for monitoring progress in cancer control. We aimed to assess cancer survival and its trends in adults in Spain. Individual records of 601,250 adults with primary cancer diagnosed during 2002–2013 and followed up to 2015 were included from 13 population-based cancer registries. We estimated…

Measuring feelings about choices and risks: The Berlin Emotional Responses to Risk Instrument (BERRI)

We introduce a brief instrument specifically validated for measuring positive and negative feelings about risks—the Berlin Emotional Responses to Risk Instrument (BERRI). Based on seven studies involving diverse adults from three countries (n = 2120), the BERRI was found to robustly estimate anticipatory affective reactions derived from subjective evaluations of positive (i.e., assured, hopeful, and relieved) and…

Impact of cumulative body mass index and cardiometabolic diseases on survival among patients with colorectal and breast cancer: a multi-centre cohort study

Background Body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes have been studied as negative prognostic factors in cancer survival, but possible dependencies in the mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unexplored. We analysed these associations in colorectal and breast cancer patients. Methods Based on repeated BMI assessments of…