In Spain, the 2021/22 influenza season overlapped with the sixth wave of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Influenza is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, perceptions and practices of influenza vaccination in the Spanish population, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention paid to people over 65 years of age. A cross-sectional study was carried out by conducting 2211 telephone interviews. It was observed that 81.6% of people ≥ 65 years were vaccinated annually or with some frequency compared to 35.5% of those under 65 years (p < 0.001). Fifty percent of Spaniards showed an intention to be vaccinated in the 2021/22 campaign, during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. In the case of people ≥ 65 years old, this figure was 83% compared to 42% of those under 65 years old (p < 0.001). Significant predictors of intention to be vaccinated were age of 65 years or older (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5), female sex (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.4), belonging to risk groups (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.1) and having been previously vaccinated (OR 29.7, 95% CI 22.5–39.2). The main reasons for deciding to be vaccinated were the need to be protected against the virus and to be vaccinated annually. On the other hand, lack of recommendation and considering the influenza vaccine as not necessary were the main reasons for not getting vaccinated. In addition, health personnel stood out as the main source of information (32.9%) compared to traditional media (26.9%) and public administration (12.3%). This study aimed to assess and analyse the factors influencing willingness to receive influenza vaccines in the COVID-19 era among Spanish adults, as well as the main information channels and strategies to encourage vaccination.