This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt, validate, and pilot the Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care questionnaire for its use in Spain.
After setting up an expert panel to determine its content validity, the questionnaire was translated and back-translated, and subjected to cognitive testing. The questionnaire was piloted in a cross-sectional study in 10 primary health care centers in Spain. Fifty patients per center completed the questionnaire while waiting for an appointment. We estimated (i) the acceptability of the questionnaire (response rate), (ii) scores distribution (floor and ceiling effects), (iii) internal consistency (Cronbach α), and (iv) construct validity (exploratory factor analyses and correlation between scales). To examine patients’ evaluations of patient safety, we followed a mixed-methods approach: (i) statistical analyses at the scale and item levels based on responses to standardized items and (ii) qualitative content analysis based on responses to open-ended questions.
Complete data were collected from 493 patients (participation rate, 77%). A ceiling effect was observed for 3 scales (“safety problems,” “harm severity,” “harm needs”). The internal consistency was adequate (α > 0.7) for the majority of scales. Exploratory factor analysis and correlation between scales suggested an appropriate construct validity. Two hundred twenty-six (45.8%) respondents experienced at least 1 safety problem, and 109 (23.2%) reported harm in the previous 12 months.
The multidimensional primary health care patient safety instrument Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care is now available for its use in Spain. Initial testing demonstrates its potential for use in primary care. Future developments will further address its use in actual clinical practice.