Context. Patients with adrenocortical tumors have been frequently observed to have nonadrenal neoplasia. Objective. To investigate whether patients with benign adrenocortical tumors have a higher likelihood of having nonadrenal neoplasia detected. Design and Participants. Case-control study of patients with benign adrenocortical tumors (cases; n = 400) and normal adrenal glands (controls; n = 400), who underwent repeated abdominal cross-sectional imaging. Main Outcomes. Primary analyses: association between case-control status and benign abdominal neoplasia detected via cross-sectional imaging. Secondary analyses: association between case-control status and tumors detected via other imaging modalities. Results. The mean interval of abdominal imaging was 4.7 (SD = 3.8) years for cases and 5.9 (4.8) years for controls. Cases were more likely to have detected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas (8.5% vs. 4.5%, adjusted OR = 2.22, 95% CI (1.11, 4.63)) compared with controls. In secondary analyses, cases were more likely to have detected thyroid nodules (25.5% vs. 17.0%, adjusted OR = 1.77, 95% CI (1.15, 2.74)), hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid adenomas (3.5% vs. 1.3%, adjusted OR = 3.00, 95% CI (1.00, 11.64)), benign breast masses (6.0% vs. 3.3%, adjusted OR = 3.25, 95% CI (1.28, 8.78)), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (20.5% vs. 5.3%, adjusted OR = 3.20, 95% CI (1.14, 10.60)). Using a composite outcome, cases had higher odds of detection of the composite of IPMN, thyroid nodules, parathyroid tumors, benign breast masses, and prostate hyperplasia (adjusted OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.60, 3.50) when compared with controls. Conclusions. Patients with benign adrenocortical tumors had higher odds of detected pancreatic IPMN, as well as thyroid nodules, parathyroid tumors, benign breast masses, and prostate hyperplasia compared with patients with normal adrenal glands. These associations may have important implications for patient care and healthcare economics, regardless of whether they reflect incidental discoveries due to imaging detection or frequency bias, or a common risk for developing multiple neoplasia.