Levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were measured in hair and urine of children that lived close to intensively farmed areas of Almeria (Southeast Spain). The levels were used as proxies for exposure of these children to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Determinants of exposure to DAPs were also examined. Urine and hair samples were collected from 222 children aged 3–11 years and information on lifestyle and dietary habits was collected from questionnaires administered to mothers. Urinary DAPs were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole tandem mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and hair DAPs by gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Detection rates ranged from 21.8% for diethylphosphate (DEP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) to 35.9% for dimethylphosphate (DMP) in urine; and from 42.3% for DETP to 92.8% for DMP in hair. Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) was detected in 0.5% of urine samples (one child), and in 26.6% of children’s hair samples. A lack of correlation was observed for individual DAP metabolites and ΣDAPs between urine and hair samples, except for DEDTP. Urinary DAP levels of our child population were lower than those reported for children from other countries, including NHANES 1999–2000 data. The main determinants of hair DAP levels were age, sex, vegetable intake, parental exposure to pesticides at work, time spent playing indoors, monthly income and father’s education level. Conversely, none of the predictors studied was significantly associated with urinary DAPs except age. Overall, hair has advantages over urine as it is easier to collect, handle and store, and allows for assessment of cumulative exposure to OPs, thus providing a greater insight for human biomonitoring.