Intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental disorders (MD) are important public health problems disproportionally affecting women. We aimed to study the epidemiology of IPV victimization, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD in Spanish men and women in terms of i) prevalence, ii) association between IPV and MD, and iii) sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with IPV, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD.
Community-based cross-sectional study with 4507 randomly selected participants. Measurement instruments (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and set of validated questions about IPV during the last 12 months) were administered by trained interviewers in participants’ households. Statistical analyses included multivariate logistic regression models.
The prevalence of IPV was 9.4%, of MD 22.3%, and of co-occurring MD-IPV 4.4%. MD was associated with higher odds of experiencing IPV (OR = 3.6; p < 0.05). Lack of social support, neuroticism, impulsivity, and family history of MD were associated with higher odds of IPV, MD, and co-occurring IPV-MD in men and women. Poor health status was associated with MD and with co-occurring IPV-MD in men and women. In women, not being married was associated with MD and with co-occurring IPV-MD; having a non-Spanish nationality was associated with IPV and co-occurring IPV-MD; and older age with IPV. In men, younger age was associated with MD.
The cross-sectional nature of this study limited our ability to examine causal inferences.
MD and IPV are strongly associated. Although less frequently than in women, IPV in men is also associated with depression, post-traumatic and mood disorders, which has relevant implications for healthcare delivery.