To establish groups of people with chronic non-cancer pain according to the impairment caused by pain and to identify factors associated with the group with a higher level of impairment.
Knowing the profiles of people who suffer from chronic non-cancer pain could make it possible to direct their treatment and to detect associated risks.
A cross-sectional study.
A sample of 395 people with chronic non-cancer pain was collected in Pain Units and Primary Healthcare Centres in southern Spain (January to March 2020). A cluster analysis was performed to divide the population into groups and a binary logistic regression model was established to determine factors associated with the group with a higher level of impairment.
Two groups were identified: lower level of impairment due to pain, characterized by being 45–65 years old, not medicated with opioids or anxiolytics, employed and with a mild level of impact on daily life; and higher level of impairment characterized by being older than 65 years old, medicated with opioids and anxiolytics, retired or on medical leave and with a severe impact on daily life. In addition, among women, being widowed, single or a smoker are risk factors for belonging to the group with a higher level of impairment; being smokers or consuming alcohol three or less times a week would be risk factors in men.
Age, chronic non-cancer pain impact on daily life, work situation and the consumption of opioid drugs and/or anxiolytics are factors that appear to influence the level of impairment due to chronic pain.
These findings could help detect impairment due to pain in its early stages, determining the specific needs of each person.