COVID-19 constitutes the largest pandemic in the last 100 years. In view of the rapid spread of the virus, it is necessary to study the sociodemographic characteristics, hygiene habits, activity and mobility, and comorbidities of SARS-CoV-2 infection to be able to implement prevention strategies. For this purpose, a survey including the variables of interest was designed to try to understand the exponential spread of the virus despite the implemented severe restrictive mobility measures during the period of maximum confinement in Spain. This study conducted throughout the Spanish territory aims to clarify other routes of transmission of the COVID-19 during confinement, risk factors, and the effectiveness of the recommended hygiene measures to detect critical points of exposure to the virus and thus reduce its spread in this and possible future pandemics that could compromise public health.
Our results show that living with a COVID-19 patient increased the risk of contagion by 60 times. Among all the sociodemographic variables analyzed, walking the dog have shown to have the strongest effect by increasing the risk by 78%. The most effective hygiene measure reducing the prevalence of the disease was the disinfection of products purchased from the market upon arrival home (which reduced the risk by 94%), above other hygiene measures, such as wearing masks, gloves, ethanol disinfection, bleaching and others. The mobility variable studied that showed the largest increase in the prevalence of the disease was working on site at the workplace (increased the risk by 76%). A significant higher prevalence of the disease was also detected among respondents who used the modality of acquiring basic commodities using home delivery service compared to those who chose in-store shopping.