Several studies have examined the association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and their impact on foetal growth and newborn anthropometry; however, the available evidence is limited and inconclusive. This study examined whether prenatal organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticide exposure was associated with anthropometric measures at birth (weight, length, head circumference), ponderal index, gestational age, and prematurity in 537 mother-child pairs. These were randomly selected from the 800 pairs participating in the prospective birth cohort GENEIDA (Genetics, early life environmental exposures and infant development in Andalusia). Six non-specific organophosphate metabolites (dialkylphosphates, DAPs), one metabolite relatively specific to chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy) and a common metabolite to several pyrethroids (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured in maternal urine from the 1st and 3rd pregnancy trimesters. Information on anthropometric measures at birth, gestational age and prematurity was retrieved from medical records. The sum on a molar basis of DAPs with methyl (ƩDMs) and ethyl (ƩDEs) moieties and the sum of the 6 DAPs metabolites (ƩDAPs) was calculated for both trimesters of pregnancy. High urinary levels of dimethyl phosphate (DMP) during the 3rd trimester were associated with a decrease in birth weight (β = −0.24; 95% CI: 0.41; −0.06) and birth length (β = −0.20; 95% CI: 0.41; 0.02). Likewise, ΣDMs during 3rd trimester were near-significantly associated with decreased birth weight (β = −0.18; 95% CI: 0.37; 0.01). In turn, increased urinary TCPy during 1st trimester was associated with a decreased head circumference (β = −0.31; 95% CI: 0.57; −0.06). Finally, an increase in 3-PBA in the 1st trimester was associated with a decreased gestational age (β = −0.36 95% CI: 0.65–0.08), whereas increased 3-PBA at 1st and 3rd trimester was associated with prematurity. These results indicate that prenatal exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides could affect normal foetal growth, shorten gestational age and alter anthropometric measures at birth.