The aim of the present study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the work ability index (WAI) within a sample of Spanish health centre workers. The WAI was translated into Spanish using transcultural and forward–backward translation processes and administered to 1184 Spanish health centre workers. Internal consistency, predictive validity, and discriminative ability were examined. Exploratory factor analysis, via principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, determined the most appropriate questionnaire structure. All indices in relation to predictive validity and reliability were acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis supported validity of the one-factor structure, however, confirmatory factor analysis suggested better properties in relation to a two-factor structure (χ2 = 59.52; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.06). Items 3, 4, and 5 loaded onto factor one, and items 1, 2, 6, and 7 loaded onto factor two. The two factors could be broadly described as “subjectively estimated work ability” and “ill-health-related ability”. The WAI is valid and reliable when administered to health centre workers in Spain. In contrast to that suggested by studies conducted in other countries, future research and practical application with similar respondents and settings should proceed using the two-factor structure.