Objectives: Standard care for cutaneous melanoma includes an accurate pathology report (PR) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for staging clinically node-negative >1 mm melanomas. We aimed to investigate the frequency of these indicators across European countries, also assessing consequences for survival. Methods: We analyzed 4245 melanoma cases diagnosed in six European countries in 2009–2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the Odds Ratio (OR) of receiving complete PR with eight items or SLNB and model-based survival to estimate the five-year relative excess risks of death (RER). Results: Overall, 12% patients received a complete PR (range 2.3%, Estonia—20.1%, Italy); SLNB was performed for 68.8% of those with cN0cM0 stage (range 54.4%, Spain—81.7%, Portugal). The adjusted OR of receiving a complete PR was lower than the mean in Estonia (OR 0.11 (0.06–0.18)) and higher in Italy (OR 6.39 (4.90–8.34)) and Portugal (OR 1.39 (1.02–1.89)); it was higher for patients operated on in specialized than general hospitals (OR 1.42 (1.08–1.42)). In the multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, country and clinical-pathological characteristics, the RER resulted in being higher than the reference for patients not receiving a complete PR with eight items (RER 1.72 (1.08–2.72)), or for those not undergoing SLNB (RER 1.76 (1.26–2.47)) Patients with non-metastatic node-negative thickness >1 mm melanoma who did not undergo SLNB had a higher risk of death (RER (RER 1.69 (1.02–2.80)) than those who did. Conclusions: Accurate pathology profiling and SLNB carried survival benefit. Narrowing down between-countries differences in adhesion to guidelines might achieve better outcomes.