Life tables summarise a population’s mortality experience during a time period. Sex- and age-specific life tables are needed to compute various cancer survival measures. However, mortality rates vary according to socioeconomic status. We present sex- and age-specific life tables based on socioeconomic status at the census tract level in Spain during 2011–2013 that will allow estimating cancer relative survival estimates and life expectancy measures by socioeconomic status. Population and mortality data were obtained from the Spanish Statistical Office. Socioeconomic level was measured using the Spanish Deprivation Index by census tract. We produced sex- and age-specific life expectancies at birth by quintiles of deprivation, and life tables by census tract and province. Life expectancy at birth was higher among women than among men. Women and men in the most deprived census tracts in Spain lived 3.2 and 3.8 years less than their counterparts in the least deprived areas. A higher life expectancy in the northern regions of Spain was discovered. Life expectancy was higher in provincial capitals than in rural areas. We found a significant life expectancy gap and geographical variation by sex and socioeconomic status in Spain. The gap was more pronounced among men than among women. Understanding the association between life expectancy and socioeconomic status could help in developing appropriate public health programs. Furthermore, the life tables we produced are needed to estimate cancer specific survival measures by socioeconomic status. Therefore, they are important for cancer control in Spain.