Several studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to vitamin D metabolism may affect CRC carcinogenesis and survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 13 SNPs involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway on CRC survival. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study, which included 127 Caucasian CRC patient from the south of Spain. SNPs in VDR, CYP27B1, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, and GC genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Cox regression analysis adjusted for metastasis, age of diagnosis, stage (IIIB, IV or IVB), ECOG score (2–4), lymph node involvement, adjuvant chemotherapy, and no family history of CRC showed that the VDR ApaI (p = 0.036), CYP24A1 rs6068816 (p < 0.001), and GC rs7041 (p = 0.006) were associated with OS in patients diagnosed with CRC, and CYP24A1 rs6068816 (p < 0.001) was associated with PFS adjusted for metastasis, age of diagnosis, stage (IIIB, IV or IVB), ECOG score (2–4), lymph node involvement, adjuvant chemotherapy, and no primary tumor resection. The rest of the SNPs showed no association with CRC survival. Thus, the SNPs mentioned above may have a key role as prognostic biomarkers of CRC.