Comprehensive population-based data on myeloid neoplasms (MNs) are limited, mainly because some subtypes were not recognized as hematological cancers prior to the WHO publication in 2001, and others are too rare to allow robust estimates within regional studies. Herein, we provide incidence data of the whole spectrum of MNs in Spain during 2002–2013 using harmonized data from 13 population-based cancer registries. Cases (n = 17,522) were grouped following the HAEMACARE groupings and 2013-European standardized incidence rates (ASRE), incidence trends, and estimates for 2021 were calculated. ASRE per 100,000 inhabitants was 5.14 (95% CI: 5.00–5.27) for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), 4.71 (95% CI: 4.59–4.84) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 3.91 (95% CI: 3.79–4.02) for acute myeloid leukemia, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78–0.88) for MDS/MPN, 0.35 (95% CI: 0.32–0.39) for acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage, and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.53–0.62) for not-otherwise specified (NOS) cases. This study highlights some useful points for public health authorities, such as the remarkable variability in incidence rates among Spanish provinces, the increasing incidence of MPN, MDS, and MDS/MPN during the period of study, in contrast to a drop in NOS cases, and the number of cases expected in 2021 based on these data (8446 new MNs).