Resistin is a polypeptide implicated in inflammatory processes, and as such could be linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. In case-control studies, higher resistin levels have been found in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients compared to healthy individuals. However, evidence for the association between pre-diagnostic resistin and CRC risk is scarce. We investigated pre-diagnostic resistin concentrations and CRC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case-control study among 1293 incident CRC-diagnosed cases and 1293 incidence density-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models controlled for matching factors (age, sex, study center, fasting status, and women-related factors in women) and potential confounders (education, dietary and lifestyle factors, body mass index (BMI), BMI-adjusted waist circumference residuals) were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CRC. Higher circulating resistin concentrations were not associated with CRC (RR per doubling resistin, 1.11; 95% CI 0.94–1.30; p = 0.22). There were also no associations with CRC subgroups defined by tumor subsite or sex. However, resistin was marginally associated with a higher CRC risk among participants followed-up maximally two years, but not among those followed-up after more than two years. We observed no substantial correlation between baseline circulating resistin concentrations and adiposity measures (BMI, waist circumference), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), or metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, C-peptide, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reactive oxygen metabolites) among controls. In this large-scale prospective cohort, there was little evidence of an association between baseline circulating resistin concentrations and CRC risk in European men and women.