HBM4EU-MOM: Prenatal methylmercury-exposure control in five countries through suitable dietary advice for pregnancy – Study design and characteristics of participants

Background Seafood is a major source of vital nutrients for optimal fetal growth, but at the same time is the main source of exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an established neurodevelopmental toxicant. Pregnant women must be provided with dietary advice so as to include safely fish in their diet for nutrition and mercury control. The aim…

Correlation Between Opioid Drug Prescription and Opioid-Related Mortality in Spain as a Surveillance Tool: Ecological Study

Background: Opioid drug prescription (ODP) and opioid-related mortality (ORM) have increased in Spain. However, their relationship is complex, as ORM is registered without considering the type of opioid (legal or illegal). Objective: This ecological study aimed to examine the correlation between ODP and ORM in Spain and discuss their usefulness as a surveillance tool. Methods:…

Sex Moderates the Relationship Between Social Support and Cardiovascular Prevention Behaviors in Middle-aged and Older Adults

Background Most risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are modifiable, suggesting that the burden of CVD could be substantially reduced through cardiovascular screening and healthier lifestyle. People who have social support are more likely to adhere to cardiovascular prevention recommendations, but it is not clear whether the benefit of social support is equal for men…

Association of Mediterranean diet with survival after breast cancer diagnosis in women from nine European countries: results from the EPIC cohort study

Background The Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower risk of breast cancer (BC) but evidence from prospective studies on the role of Mediterranean diet on BC survival remains sparse and conflicting. We aimed to investigate whether adherence to Mediterranean diet prior to diagnosis is associated with overall and BC-specific mortality. Methods A total of…

Ethical assessments and mitigation strategies for biases in AI-systems used during the COVID-19 pandemic

The main aim of this article is to reflect on the impact of biases related to artificial intelligence (AI) systems developed to tackle issues arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, with special focus on those developed for triage and risk prediction. A secondary aim is to review assessment tools that have been developed to prevent biases…

Associations between dietary inflammatory scores and biomarkers of inflammation in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

Background Since the first version of the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) developed in the past decade, several other versions have been developed. However, to date no study has attempted to compare these versions with respect to their associations with biomarkers of inflammation. Objective We aimed to investigate the relationship between four dietary inflammatory scores [DII,…

A body shape index (ABSI) is associated inversely with post-menopausal progesterone-receptor-negative breast cancer risk in a large European cohort

Background Associations of body shape with breast cancer risk, independent of body size, are unclear because waist and hip circumferences are correlated strongly positively with body mass index (BMI). Methods We evaluated body shape with the allometric “a body shape index” (ABSI) and hip index (HI), which compare waist and hip circumferences, correspondingly, among individuals…

Diet and lifestyle in relation to small intestinal cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

The incidence of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is increasing, however, its aetiology remains unclear due to a lack of data from large-scale prospective cohorts. We examined modifiable risk factors in relation to SIC overall and by histological subtype. Methods We analysed 450,107 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Cox…

Effect of prenatal exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides on neonatal anthropometric measures and gestational age

Several studies have examined the association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and their impact on foetal growth and newborn anthropometry; however, the available evidence is limited and inconclusive. This study examined whether prenatal organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticide exposure was associated with anthropometric measures at birth (weight, length, head circumference), ponderal index, gestational…

Educational Strategies to Reduce Physician Shortages in Underserved Areas: A Systematic Review

The shortage of physicians in rural and underserved areas is an obstacle to the implementation of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). We carried out a systematic review to analyze the effectiveness of initiatives in medical education aimed to increase the supply of physicians in rural or underserved areas. We searched for studies published between 1999 and…