Comorbidities, age and period of diagnosis influence treatment and outcomes in early breast cancer

Survival for breast cancer (BC) is lower in eastern than northern/central Europe, and in older than younger women. We analysed how comorbidities at diagnosis affected whether selected standard treatments (STs) were given, across Europe and over time, also assessing consequences for survival/relapse. We analysed 7,581 stage I/IIA cases diagnosed in 9 European countries in 2009−13,…

Competition in the off-patent medicine market in Spain: The national reference pricing system versus the regional system of tendering for outpatient prescription medicines in Andalusia

Spain has a reference price system (RPS) for off-patent medicines since 1997. In addition, from 2012, Andalusia is running a series of tenders for procuring off-patent medicines dispensed by community pharmacies, for those medicines included in the system of homogenous clusters within the national reference price system. Such tenders offer additional savings to the regional…