Using longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation in complex settings with dynamic interventions

Longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation (LTMLE) has very rarely been used to estimate dynamic treatment effects in the context of time‐dependent confounding affected by prior treatment when faced with long follow‐up times, multiple time‐varying confounders, and complex associational relationships simultaneously. Reasons for this include the potential computational burden, technical challenges, restricted modeling options for long…

Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations

Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs;…

Pre-diagnostic plasma bile acid levels and colon cancer risk: A prospective study

Background Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. Methods Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control…

Estimated Substitution of Tea or Coffee for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Was Associated with Lower Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Case–Cohort Analysis across 8 European Countries in the EPIC-InterAct Study

Introduction Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit…

Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Fetal and Neonatal Death: A Meta-Analysis with Socioeconomic Context Indicators

Objective To summarize the results from observational studies examining the risk of fetal and neonatal death (perinatal death) as a function of the experience of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy and examine the influence of socioeconomic context indicators on this association. Data sources Bibliographic searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and LILACS until…

Optimal start in dialysis shows increased survival in patients with chronic kidney disease

Objective To compare the survival among patients with chronic kidney disease who had optimal starts of renal replacement therapy, dialysis or hemodialysis, with patients who had suboptimal starts. Methods A retrospective cohort consisting of >18 year-old patients who started renal replacement therapy, using peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis, in any public hospital or associated center of…

Biomonitoring of common organophosphate metabolites in hair and urine of children from an agricultural community

Levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were measured in hair and urine of children that lived close to intensively farmed areas of Almeria (Southeast Spain). The levels were used as proxies for exposure of these children to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Determinants of exposure to DAPs were also examined. Urine and hair samples were collected from 222…