Competition in the off-patent medicine market in Spain: The national reference pricing system versus the regional system of tendering for outpatient prescription medicines in Andalusia

Spain has a reference price system (RPS) for off-patent medicines since 1997. In addition, from 2012, Andalusia is running a series of tenders for procuring off-patent medicines dispensed by community pharmacies, for those medicines included in the system of homogenous clusters within the national reference price system. Such tenders offer additional savings to the regional…

Conocimientos y actitudes de los médicos de Atención Primaria de Andalucía (España) sobre la detección de personas con riesgo elevado de cáncer de mama y colorrectal

Objetivos Explorar los conocimientos y las actitudes de los médicos de Atención Primaria de Andalucía sobre la detección de personas con riego elevado de cáncer de mama y colorrectal y el cáncer hereditario. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal a partir de una encuesta de opinión on line. Cuestionario de 24 preguntas. Para el análisis estadístico se…

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and risk of death following a breast cancer diagnosis: results from the EPIC cohort

Background Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-signaling is involved in tumor growth and spread in experimental models. Binding of RANK ligand (RANKL) to RANK activates signaling, which is inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). We have previously shown that circulating soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG are associated with breast cancer risk. Here we extend these findings…